Thursday, December 9, 2010

8 B.C.

Dating the Birth of Jesus 

Luke and Matthew in Chronology

Bert Gary © 2010

8 B.C. – LUKE

Historical Context

Luke records that Augustus was emperor of Rome when Jesus was born. Records show that the emperor ordered a census in 6 A.D. while Quirinius was governor of Syria. But this date is too late for Jesus’ birth as the Bible tells it. According to Matthew 2 and Luke 1:5, Herod the Great was still alive when Jesus was born. Herod died in 4 B.C., so Jesus had to have been born before 4 B.C. (The incorrect birth year of 1 A.D. was established in the 6th Century.)

Though the governorship of Quirinius and the 6 AD census date are too late for Jesus’ birth, Quirinius may have been governor twice. His first reign may have begun in 12 BC as co-legate during which he was ordered to do a census in 9 BC (It takes years to complete one, and it was done from 9-6 BC). This fits Luke’s and Matthew’s dating quite well, and puts Jesus’ birth at about 8 BC, within the reigns of Augustus, Quirinius, and Herod as Luke claims. (See the Res Gestae Inscription and the Aemilius Secundus Inscription. Some scholars claim that these confirm both the early census and the earlier co-reign of Quirinius. Other scholars contest this.)

Joseph and Mary

The Scriptures say that the people of Bethlehem were of King David’s lineage. (David was from Bethlehem.) Joseph and Mary are said to have traveled “home” to Bethlehem for the census. “All went to their own towns to be registered.” (Luke 2:3)  This quote suggests that though Joseph and Mary had relocated to Nazareth, or were in the process of doing so, they were originally from Bethlehem and had to go back home to be counted. The Scriptures strongly suggest that they had a house in Bethlehem. Matthew makes a point of saying that when Jesus was about 2 years old, the Magi bearing gifts visited them in “the house.” (Matthew 2:11—see below)

So why would Joseph and Mary relocate to Nazareth? Two reasons present themselves.

Nazareth spelled with a "tz" rather than a "z"
First, the name of the town was also the name of the people there. They were Nazareans. An inscription from Caesarea with the town name on it spells it not with a “z,” but with a “tz.” Netzerea. The name is no doubt a reference to Isaiah 11:1 where the messiah is prophesied as a branch (netzer) to spring forth from the old stump of Jesse, King David’s father. Matthew 2:23 then is referring to Isaiah 11:1: “He will be called a Nazorean.” Nazorean means people of the branch. Apparently the people of the tiny village of Nazareth were also of the lineage of David. Joseph and Mary would have kin there with messianic hopes. They would have felt at home.

Luke specifically says that “while they were there” in Bethlehem, Mary went into labor (Luke 2:6). Luke mentions no emergency labor, nothing of Mary in labor on a donkey, nothing of a desperate search of strange streets for emergency lodging. No donkey and no innkeeper are mentioned. Mary and Joseph were already at home in their hometown when labor began.

Second, Joseph was a builder (tekton), and the nearby city of Sepphoris was being constructed by Herod Antipas beginning in 4 B.C. as the capitol of Galilee. It was the largest construction project in the region. Builders flocked there for work. With Nazareth only 4 miles away, easy walking distance each day for pay, Joseph could have seen this as an opportunity for steady income for his new family, reason enough alone to consider relocation there.

Only One Verse in the Bible Describes Jesus’ Birth

  • Luke 2:7   and she gave birth to a son, her first-born. She wrapped him in swaddling clothes and laid him in a manger because there was no place (topos in the original Greek) for them in the living-space (kataluma in the original Greek). {New Jerusalem Bible}
Sepphoris Jewish neighborhood
Kataluma in Luke 2:7 continues to be translated by many Bible publishers as "inn," even though the better translations are "guest chamber" or "living room." It is translated as such elsewhere in Scripture. For example, in Luke 22:11 Jesus instructed the disciples to follow a man carrying water into Jerusalem. They followed him to a house that had a large kataluma where they could all gather together for the Passover meal. Kataluma is translated in 22:11 in almost all English versions as guestroom or guest chamber. Verse 12 says it was a large upper room.

 Child in ancient Israel manger

What does Luke place at the manger? Joseph and Mary were there. Jesus was lying in the manger (animal feed trough) wrapped up in strips of cloth as was the practice in that day (They didn’t have Pampers.). They used a manger as a crib, probably in a downstairs cave of their Bethlehem home where animals were kept. Mary went down there to give birth because the living-space upstairs in a crowed home was no place (topos means place or space, not hotel room) for labor and delivery. Privacy and defilement issues sent them to a more private spot.

What Luke does not place at the feeding trough: There is no donkey, they are not in a shed in a field, and no animals are mentioned being there. Matthew’s Magi did not come to the manger at Jesus’ birth, but to the family home two years later (see Matthew’s account below). At the manger in Luke’s Gospel, there is no star, no Magi, and no gifts. There are only shepherds.

The Shepherds

        Sheepfold cave near Bethlehem -
        Imagine a house built atop the cave
While Mary and Joseph were in town having a baby in their house, some shepherds were out in the fields outside of town. An angel greeted them with good news for all people: the birth of a savior. The shepherds went into Bethlehem to find the house with a newborn. They viewed the baby in an animal feed trough, probably from a safe distance because of defilement regulations.


Arab bedouin posing as a Magi
The Magi

Joseph was not present when the Magi arrived two years later (Matthew 2:11). He may have gone back to Nazareth to continue setting up his family’s new home. The Magi found the house where Mary and Jesus were living, and they gave them gifts: gold (for a king), frankincense (for a priest), and myrrh (for burial). Had Joseph been nearby, he would not have missed this.

How do we know these events took place two years later? According to Matthew, the Magi told Herod the Great when a special star first appeared in faraway Arabia announcing the birth of a Judean king. They traveled a long way and it took a while for them to get there. Herod wanted to know how old the child might be presently so he could kill him. The Magi, not perceiving Herod’s malice, informed him when the star had appeared. This gave Herod the approximate age of the newborn king, which is why Herod ordered every child under the age of three (two and under) in the tiny village to be killed (Matthew 2:16). So the child—his birth coinciding with the appearance of the star—would have been about a two-year-old toddler when the Magi arrived. So the year would have been about 6 B.C., just two years before King Herod’s death.

Matthew describes the events before Jesus birth (his conception) and the events involving the Magi two years later, but not the events of Jesus’ actual birth. Only Luke describes that. Matthew says nothing of labor and delivery, the manger, the baby, the strips of cloth, the shepherds, or the angels. Matthew’s story tells of Jesus’ conception and then skips to two years after his birth:

Matthew 1:18  Now the birth of Jesus the Messiah took place in this way. When his mother Mary had been engaged to Joseph, but before they lived together, she was found to be with child from the Holy Spirit.

Matthew 2:1  After Jesus was born in Bethlehem in Judea, during the time of King Herod, Magi {Traditionally Wise Men} from the east came to Jerusalem (emphasis mine)

No camels are mentioned by Matthew in relation to the Magi. Nor does he mention that there were specifically three of them (guesses range from two to twelve). Magi were an ancient class of scholars who were experts in everything from medicine to magic to astrology. They are not specifically called “Wise Men” anywhere in scripture, though all Magi were certainly learned. Interestingly, Magi is the root of our English words magic and magician.

 Herod Antipas coin
The Magi were warned in a dream to flee Bethlehem, Joseph was also warned in a dream to flee, and so the family escaped Herod’s murder of the children in Bethlehem by taking their toddler into hiding in Egypt. When Herod died (4 B.C), they wanted to return to Judea, presumably to their home in Bethlehem, but Herod’s son Archelaus was on the Judean throne, and he was worse than his dad. Another son of Herod named Antipas, upon his father’s death, went to Sepphoris to start construction on his capital—more enticement for Joseph to relocate to nearby Nazareth. So they made their home there. By that time, Jesus may have been about six years of age, it was about 2 B.C., and Jesus was old enough for apprenticeship to his father as a tekton.


Ancient Roman period tektons

Tekton means "builder" (Matthew 13:55; Mark 6:3). It’s the root word for tectonics, which is the study of the earth’s crust or the science of constructing sky scrapers. Obviously the earth’s crust and sky scrapers are not made of wood. Interestingly, in the Bible Jesus never spoke of carpentry once, but spoke often of building and stone, giving the picture of a "mason" instead of a "wood worker.” From archaeology we know that wood was scarce and expensive. A carpenter would find little work. But a tekton living near Sepphoris would have steady, well-paying employment.

For a look at what day Jesus was born see my blog "When Was Jesus Born?" For a deeper look at the biblical birth stories in comparison with Christmas plays, pageants, cantatas, and manger scenes see my blog "Are Kids' Christmas Plays Biblical?" Also see "A Brief Dictionary of Jesus' Birth".

Saturday, October 2, 2010


Halloween's Ultimate in Evangelical Perversity

Every Halloween there is out there in Churchianity a little something I like to call the ultimate in evangelical perversity: Hell Houses. A Hell House (also called Judgment House or Doom House) is a take-off on the old haunted house or house of horrors, but Hell House is sponsored by a church and often held at the sponsoring church facility. The idea is to scare the hell out of you, literally. They show you how to get to hell and what it will be like in order to pressure you into "getting saved" so you can be counted on the pastor's tally sheet.

In each successive room of Hell House, visitors are “treated” to a series of brief skits. Typical dramas are a bloody high school shooting at point blank range, a bloody suicide, a bloody abortion performed on a screaming teenager, a bloody satanic ritual killing, and other scenes that might involve bloody drunk drivers, dopers, adulterers, or witchcraft aficionados. (Hell House instruction manuals—yes, there are instruction manuals!—specifically advise you to whip up a large fresh batch of fake blood every day.) As if that isn’t objectionable enough, bloody September 11, 2001 ground zero scenes have become popular too.

At the end of your Hell House experience, there are typically two exits. Visitors are asked to accept salvation by repenting of their sins and accepting Jesus. If they want to do that, they should go through the “good” exit (that they say leads to Jesus and heaven).  If not, they have to exit through the “bad” door (Satan and hell). No one asks anything of you if you leave through the bad door; you just get ignored. But if you exit through the good door, they have you sign stuff having to do with a tally of “souls won” for upcoming religious activities.

I received a letter once from the pastor of a church that sponsored a Hell House. It listed members of the church I served who “received salvation” by departing the good door at their recent annual House of Holy Horrors. The names on the list were mostly teenagers in our youth group, and they reported to me that the pressure put on them was overwhelming.

Do you think that any Hell House visitors have ever been impacted with the love of God? Or did the visitors claim to have “made a decision for Christ” because it was the least anxiety-producing way to escape the intense psychological pressure being applied?

This I know: People attending Hell Houses never hear the gospel, the real gospel of the Bible. Moreover, I never read in Scripture that Jesus ever used fear, gore, intimidation, and psychological pressure to introduce people to his heavenly Father. I will never condone this sick spiritual terrorism. (When a friend of mine read aloud this last sentence in a Bible study class I led, instead of “sick spiritual terrorism” he read “slick spiritual terrorism!” What a terrific Freudian slip!)

What do you think Jesus’ opinion is about the terrorizing procedures of Hell Houses?

I’m clear that the Jesus of scripture cannot condone such scare tactics. I’m clear that he never used such tactics himself. I’m clear that fear cannot bring anyone to God ever.

There is no fear in love, but perfect love casts out fear; for fear has to do with punishment, and whoever fears has not reached perfection in love. (1 John 4:18)

Even though it’s clearly not scriptural, churches continue to use fear to motivate and control Christians. So, how do churches sustain these misguided evangelical scare tactics?

  1. They’ve learned that fear works to make you attend and give money.
  2. So they plant seeds of doubt about your salvation frequently, perhaps weekly. They can’t allow you to have assurance, much less certainty. Why? Because if they allow salvation certainty or assurance, then fear won’t work anymore to keep you coming and giving money.
  3. Then they have to shut down your questions. They say that questions are evidence of faithlessness. They explain that faithlessness brings your salvation into question. And if your salvation is uncertain, fear is more likely to keep you attending and giving money.
  4. They discourage independent thinking about Scripture and theology. Your independent attitude will be viewed as an attack on corporate stability and body-count momentum. Only company yes-men need apply. If you won’t knuckle under, you can expect to be barely tolerated, ignored, ostracized, or run off.
Hell Houses are just an extreme of modern evangelicalism's standard operating procedure. You could be enjoying a cool October evening at the State Fair when a young man, a complete stranger to you, approaches acting friendly. Smiling. Interrupting. “You enjoying the fair, sir?” he asks you, but not really interested in your reply. “Man, that pretzel looks good,” he continues without waiting for you to respond. Then he springs his little rat trap. “Sir, are you saved? Do you know Jesus Christ as your personal Lord and Savior? If you died today, are you certain that you will go to heaven?” He pushes a tract into your hands. He doesn’t ask your name. He expresses no interest in where you live, how many kids you’ve got, what you do for a living, or where you may or may not attend church. He doesn’t even apologize for the interruption. He’s at the fair on a single-minded yet misguided mission:

Stop strangers from going to hell.

More than mere rudeness, his actions are coldly impersonal. He’s not there to meet you or get to know you or to have a relationship of any kind with you, much less to walk with you through your struggles in life. He’s engaging you in a non-relational exchange—really more of a bombardment. The true, biblical Gospel is at its core relational. Yet this young man’s approach is decisional.

Earlier, on a garishly painted church bus, he was given instructions by his pastor on what to say and do, so the young man is not entirely to blame. He wasn’t instructed to relate to you. The pastor likened all the “unsaved” (There’s a completely unbiblical word!) at the fair to people in a burning building. He stressed urgency. The idea is to get “bodies” out of the burning building, i.e. to “save them,” meaning save them from hell, or more specifically, save them from God sending them to hell when they die or on judgment day, whenever it is that God supposedly does the judging, condemning, and sending to hell stuff. Amen.

I don’t know how far back the burning building analogy goes, but thanks to the internet I found it in an excerpt from a book by Mississippi evangelist T.T. Martin from 1923:

“Isn't saving a soul from spending eternity in hell ten million times more important than saving a human body from a burning building?”

So there’s our young missionary’s rationale. He has been influenced by his pastor to believe that the end justifies the means. It’s OK to be rude and non-relational to people at the fair because it’s in an effort to save them from God’s sending them to eternal torture. Apparently even dishonest conversational ploys are justifiable given their perceived urgency of the situation. Our young man is doing his job and following his pastor’s instructions, and he likely believes he’s doing what Jesus wants him to do too. So when the pastor asks him at the end of the evening how many he “witnessed” to, he can give him as large a “body count” as possible. He’s punched his ticket with x number of rude interruptions at the fair, x number of "decisions for Christ," x number of bodies saved from burning. His pastor punched his ticket with the recruitment of x number of teens making x number of rude hell-fire-tract-interruptions at the fair resulting in x "decisions."

I can hardly believe that the burning-building crowd can maintain this utter contradiction. Their face on the world is that they have salvation, and you don’t. They have to make you into their image by acting assured of salvation. Yet at the very same time, the key to the message within the walls of many a church is planting seeds of doubt about everyone’s salvation! Only fear will continue to feed the guilt-driven, decisional mechanics of confrontational evangelization. Do you see it? Fear attracts bodies. The church feeds them fear. Fear attracts bodies. The church feeds them fear. Round and round goes the hamster wheel of religion.

Why are the church’s tactics not blackmail and black magic? Isn’t using intimidation and threat to extort money and membership blackmail by definition? Isn’t pressuring people into reciting a formula that’s supposed to presto-chango switch their afterlife destination sorcery by definition? Intimidation and incantation. Threats and spells. Aren’t these blackmail and black magic just in the dictionary sense? Isn’t it obvious? What else could threat and magic words be? But, ironically, the religious folks call it “good news” and “prayer!”

There’s a huge problem here. I am willing to bet that for most people “getting saved from hell when you die” has actually become “the gospel” as they know it. I’m dead serious. Stand at the door of any church following worship. Survey people as they are leaving. When asked what the good news is, won’t most people say this or, with variation, its equivalent: “You can get saved by Jesus so God won’t have to send you to hell when you die!”

There is no treating and a lot of tricking going on at your local Hell House this Halloween.

What if, in the Bible, being “saved” has little to do with reserving a spot in the afterlife and more to do with being set free to live now and forever? What if, rather than fear and threat, the message of Scripture—the good news—is that you can trust and rest and live in the grace of God in Jesus Christ given freely to the world?

For more evangelical bad behavior:
The Prosperity Gospel: God In a Box
Katrina: The Wrath of God?
The Christian Ambush: A True Story
Don't You Hate Christian Tracts?

For a definition of biblical salvation see my blogs:
You’re Saved (part one) and You’re Saved (part two) [You may order a complimentary hard copy of it in booklet form from Plain Truth Ministries on their pdf order form here.]

See also these blogs:

PTM published this blog as an E-Update Feature Article: "Hell House?"

Read more:

Friday, September 3, 2010

The Prosperity Gospel: God In a Box

“Delayed obedience becomes disobedience,” said the television prosperity preacher, “and the delivery date on your financial harvest is today. If you hesitate, if you doubt, if you stop to think before you call and sow your uncommon seed right now, the delivery date on your harvest will be moved back. If you delay, heaven will delay. Call now. Don’t think. Don’t hesitate. Just simply obey the man of God, and reap your harvest of uncommon prosperity.”

“Don’t let this hour close with your hands closed. Quickly, go to the phone now. God never opens his hands until you open your hands. Call quickly. Call now.”

“When God wants you to have a harvest, he asks you for a seed that authorizes it. When God has a future for you, he talks to you about a seed. The instruction you follow determines the future you create.”

“When I open my hands, God opens His hands. My seed talks to God. My seed is a picture of my covenant to God. When God sees my seed, it is the way he remembers me.”

“When God wants to bless you, he talks to you about a seed. Quickly go to the telephone. Call the number that‘s on the screen. Do it now.”

“Nothing leaves heaven until something leaves earth. A swift response of faith releases a swift response from God. Your seed has never had so much power. If you have ever decided to obey the Holy Spirit, do it today. If you are ever watching a program ordained by the Holy Spirit, this is the one.”

“There is an anointing on the $1,000 seed right now. God will always give you something illogical to do. God will never give you something logical to do. You can do the logical stuff yourself. God doesn’t talk to your mind; he talks to your heart. God doesn’t talk to your logic; he talks to your faith. Call now.”

These are actual quotes from a televangelist. His moneymaking message is built on a “philosophy” of sorts, one that has been called by many names. It has been called Spiritualism, Occult Metaphysics, New Thought, the Law of Attraction, the Secret, Religious Science, Christian Science, the Power of Positive Thinking, Word of Faith, the Prosperity Gospel, the Law of Faith, and even “God.”

Does this philosophy have Christian origins? No, but it has infiltrated Christianity. There are four principle beliefs in the “Christian” version of New Thought. I will demonstrate what they are and why they are not biblical, and, therefore, why they are not Christian at all. The “God” of the Prosperity Gospel is radically different from the God of the biblical Gospel.
Law One: The Principle of Revelation Knowledge
Lie One: God is a knowable, non-material, nonphysical
power that you can tap into to change
the material/physical world.

As Christians, we believe that God is revealed fully in Jesus Christ. “Revelation Knowledge,” as defined by Prosperity Gospel proponents, however, has nothing to do with Jesus. It is completely metaphysical, a branch of philosophy having to do with the ultimate nature of reality.

“Revelation Knowledge” asserts that knowledge of God cannot come from your five senses because all things material are not of God, meaning God cannot communicate to you through the physical. All human understanding and science and knowledge come through the senses, so this principle is both absolutely anti-physical and anti-intellectual. “Revelation Knowledge” asserts that we cannot know God through physical or mental means, and he cannot communicate to us through them.

Origins in the Occult

The roots of New Thought and the Prosperity Gospel are in the occult. The term occult comes from the Latin occultus. It means hidden or secret. “Revelation Knowledge” asserts that the divine is hidden from our senses. “Revelation Knowledge” believes that humans may experience the divine realm through their own thought process, and in so doing actually change the material realm. It is a metaphysical philosophy of magical thinking.

 Earnest Holmes

An alternate term for Occultism is Spiritualism. Spiritualism’s “science” claims that thoughts manifest events. This new “Science of the Mind,” as it is sometimes called, flowered in the late nineteenth century. It was called “Divine Science," “Mental Science,” and the “Science of Right Thinking.” But the title that stuck, thanks to the title of a 1919 cornerstone book in metaphysics by Earnest Holmes, was New Thought.

In New Thought, God became a power within one’s own mind. To believe is to become. We become what we believe.

Becoming a god?

New Thought essentially teaches that one becomes a god as one discerns and infiltrates the divine realm, utilizing its power for use in the material world. For many New Thought advocates, the acid test of their success—of how good a “god” they are—is reflected in how healthy and wealthy they are.

Tony Robbins

This occult, spiritualist philosophy—popularized today by notables as diverse as best selling author Eckhart Tolle and motivational guru Tony Robbins—reflects an extreme individualism and self-determination, asserting that the divine operates non-relationally and impersonally. New Thought is a non-personal, universal force that we are said to be able to learn to possess and control. By doing so, we become our own god. Thus it is the height of human pride.

Eckhart Tolle

Occultism has a parallel in religions of Indian origin, such as Buddhism and Hinduism. Their notion of “karma” is compatible with the principles of Occultism or Spiritualism. Karma is their term for a cosmic law of reciprocity. Good deeds manifest good fortune. Bad deeds manifest bad fortune. It may be no accident then that Tolle moves fluidly in his books between New Thought (New Age Science of the Mind) and Buddhist philosophy.

Jesus, however, rejects any notion of karma, though we have no record he ever used the word. Someone interrupted Jesus while he was teaching to report an atrocity. Pilate’s men had killed some Galileans while they were worshiping. Jesus asked the crowd, “Do you think these men were worse sinners than all the other Galileans?” (Luke 13:2). Jesus is being asked whether these men deserved what they got. Some reasoned that the catastrophe was God’s punishment. But Jesus answered his own question with an emphatic “No.”

Then Jesus brings up another incident. A tower fell on some workers at Siloam, which is an area around a pool in Jerusalem of Judea. The historian Josephus reports that during Jesus’ lifetime an aqueduct was being built there with funds reportedly stolen from the temple treasury. Perhaps the men working on the aqueduct, being paid from the stolen money, were crushed in a construction accident. Jesus asks, “Do you think they were more guilty than all the others living in Jerusalem?” (Luke 18:4)—meaning did they deserve it, and were they perhaps the recipients of God’s retribution for their sin against the temple? Again Jesus says “No.”

Repent of Wrong-Headed Thinking!

What is really telling, however, in Jesus’ take on the men slaughtered by Pilate and the men crushed by the collapsing tower is his call to repentance. He warned the crowd of the peril of an unrepentant life. The word repent, metanoeo, means change-mind. Change your mind about what? Change your mind that God works like that!

Jesus rejected karmic reciprocity. No, he said. Twice. Do not think like that about my heavenly Father. And do not judge people who experience misfortune. That is what I hear Jesus saying. He warned everyone in the crowd, and he warns you and me: If you keep thinking like that, then it applies to you, too. You will have to consider your misfortune as God’s retribution. You will have to condemn yourself.

The underlying moralism in New Thought is bleak. Misfortune in your life is the result of your thinking misfortune into your life. Your misfortune is your failure to block bad thoughts and think only good thoughts.

Not unlike karma, Occultism (or Spiritualism or New Thought or Word of Faith) makes your fortune or misfortune the direct result of your individual intentional or inadvertent thoughts, words, or deeds. Notice that these philosophies leave no room for accidents and, more alarmingly, leave no room for grace. The last time I checked the Scriptures, Jesus allowed for accidents, and he was big on grace.

This denial of accidents and grace has an underlying legalism. God is reduced to a cosmic principle. God becomes a universal law of reciprocity. You get what you deserve, whether it is payoff or pay back. It is not personal in any way, it does not involve relationship, and it certainly does not involve love. It is merely a cosmic mechanism whereby you determine your own fate. Health or sickness, wealth or poverty, good fortune or bad fortune, they are up to your own ability, your own thought process, your own religious efforts or lack thereof at tapping into “the divine.”

God Cannot Cross the Material-Spiritual Divide?

Another underlying legalism in New Thought is that God is bound by a law that regulates how he can and cannot communicate with us. New Thought would force us to know God by constantly striving to block out the material and intellectual, and constantly striving to “hear” him somehow in our “hearts.”

Isn’t it ironic that New Thought teaches and believes that we cannot reach God through the material world, yet the reason to reach God is to acquire material possessions?

The Bible says that all things were made by the Word of God, Jesus Christ. (John 1:1-4; Colossians 1:16-17; Hebrews 1:2) He made our bodies with the capacity to see, hear, taste, touch and smell. He made the brain that generates our thoughts. God, far from being banned from the material world (as New Thought would have it), made the heavens and the earth and called them “good.

The Bible, moreover, does not confirm God’s inability to breach the alleged material-spiritual divide. Quite the opposite. The Word of God became flesh. (John 1:14) The Greek word is sarx. Flesh is the ultimate in materiality. God became material. Biblically, there is no alleged material-spiritual divide. Jesus’ incarnation as a human, his death in the flesh, and his resurrection in the body contradict the principle of exclusively non-material and non-intellectual revelation knowledge.

The Bible insists that the one true revelation of God to the world was quite material. “Revelation Knowledge,” this first principle of New Thought, with its material-spiritual dualism, more resembles Plato’s philosophy and early Christian Gnosticism, with their body-spirit dualism, than the Bible.

In Platonism and Gnosticism the body is bad and the spirit is good. The material is bad and the spiritual is good. “Revelation Knowledge,” the Prosperity Gospel’s first principle, is decidedly more pagan and Gnostic than Christian.

What is more, the God of the Bible, far from being an impersonal, non-relational principle, is personal and relational to the core. Jesus’ incarnation as a human says, if nothing else, that God is a person desiring relationship above all. In this sense, the biblical gospel is the exact opposite of New Thought’s Prosperity Gospel.

Law Two: The Principle of Positive Confession
Lie Two: You have within you the
power to force the non-material
God to materialize what you want
by claiming that it is yours.

The second principle of the Prosperity Gospel, which flows out of New Thought, builds on its first principle. The second principle is about the power of your mind and mouth to change physical reality.

“What I confess, I possess,” they say. “Believe it and receive it,” they say. “Name it and claim it,” they say.

New Thought entered the Christian Pentecostal movement of the early twentieth century through a movement called Word of Faith. Word of Faith became part of what is widely known as the Prosperity Gospel, enormously popular within charismatic Christianity. Word of Faith is based on “What I confess, I possess” called “Positive Confession,” or alternatively, “The Law of Faith.”

Creflo Dollar

The term “Law of Faith” is itself an illustration of the logical contradictions within New Thought / Word of Faith / Prosperity Gospel. It is contradictory to all logic and reason to turn faith into a law.

Word of Faith teaches that you have the right to demand that God do what he promised. Because you demand it, God is obligated to give you what you want. We activate God, they say. Well-known Word Faith proponents are the late Kenneth Hagin, Kenneth Copeland and Creflo Dollar. Proponents arising outside of Pentecostal circles are the late Norman Vincent Peale, Robert Schuller and Joel Osteen.

Kenneth Copeland

Copeland calls this Law of Faith the “faith-force.” He teaches that “the spirit world” can be commanded to do our bidding. Faith, in Copeland’s theology, is a power principle that we command to control our physical reality. This is the same principle used by occultist New Thought but under a different name.

Joel Osteen

Faith, as defined by the Bible, however, is trust and rest in the good news that our relationship with God is based on his goodness rather than our own. “Come to me and find rest for your souls,” he said. Biblical faith is not a law. Scriptural faith is not an impersonal cosmic principle to be manipulated for prosperity. It is, rather, simple trust in a personal God who dares to love in relationship.

Peale’s emphasis on positive imagery and self-affirmation, outlined in his 1952 classic text, The Power of Positive Thinking, is one of the most well-known, popularized versions of self-help teachings of our generation. His ideas fueled the messages of Schuller, Osteen and a host of others.

Norman Vincent Peale

In a little-known and overlooked interview, Peale regards his mentor as the giant of occult metaphysics, Earnest Holmes, the author of a foundational New Age text, Science of the Mind. The interview was for Holmes’ magazine, New Thought. Peale said that in 1920 he read Holmes’ book, Creative Mind and Success. That little book formed the basis of The Power of Positive Thinking. Tellingly, however, Peale’s biography and memoirs make no mention of Holmes.

God Obeys Humans?

The legalistic lie behind New Thought / Word of Faith / Prosperity Gospel is that God is transformed into a pawn who must obey human commands. This false gospel has created a god who set up a legal, universal principle that says that he has to obey when we think and say the right things.

New Thought / Word of Faith / Prosperity Gospel emphasis is on a positive attitude yielding positive results, and a negative attitude yielding negative results. Thinking positively is said to force God to yield positive results for you. According to this unbiblical teaching, the words you think and say have direct results in the physical world.

The “Christian” proponents of New Thought are syncretists. Syncretism is the attempt to combine opposing philosophies. They scour the Scriptures for verses that support their occult philosophy. And they are good at it. But the shotgun wedding is a bad one. New Thought defines God as a universal principle to be tapped and controlled by human thought. Word of Faith defines faith in exactly the same way.

The Bible, on the other hand, defines God as a Person (more specifically, three Persons who are one), not as a cosmic law-bound pawn. And the Bible defines faith as trust in that Person, not as a cosmic principle for manipulating the material world with words and thoughts.

Law Three: The Principle of Divine Healing
Lie Three: You have within you the
power to force the non-material
God to heal your material body.

Just as the second principle of the Prosperity Gospel, originally known as New Thought, grew out of its first principle, the third principle is founded on the second. If and when your body is sick, New Thought teaches that your physical healing is a done deal. It is called “a faith-fact” by some of its proponents, who include the late Mary Baker Eddy (Christian Science), the late Kathryn Kuhlman, the late Oral Roberts and the well-known, very much alive Benny Hinn, among many others.

Benny Hinn

According to the Prosperity Gospel, the ultimate test of your faith is to claim your healing complete when you are still experiencing symptoms. Any continuing symptoms, they say, are not real, but a trick of the devil to hinder your faith and steal your healing. The legalism should be obvious.

According to the Prosperity Gospel, your physical well-being is entirely dependent on how well you manipulate God with the faith-force. If you really get healed or if you enjoy sustained health, it is due to your prowess at naming and claiming your healing. But if you get sick or stay sick, it is your fault. Your continuing sickness is explained as your lack of faith, unbelief or sin.

The Prosperity Gospel is the worst kind of fear-driven hamster wheel because, it is claimed, “The Principle of Divine Healing” works in reverse, too. If you talk aloud to someone about the possibility of getting cancer, that might cause cancer. If you worry about it in your mind, you can actually call cancer into existence in your body. What a slavish, paranoid existence!

Joyce Meyers

Many so-called “faith-healers” have emphasized this principle and have been extremely successful in securing the funds for their broadcasts by taking up offerings prior to the healing portions of their “worship services.” I attended two Ernest Angley healing crusades, and I have friends who attended a Joyce Meyer event. Two things they have in common are the emphasis on contributions up front, and the fact that this protracted portion of their events is not broadcast on television.

Earnest Angley

Again, in this “gospel,” God is a cosmic principle, a universal law, an invisible faith-force, one that you somehow “hear” non-sensually and non-intellectually, yet one that you control with your thoughts. If you claim yourself healed, (and perhaps also apply the power of the almighty dollar in the evangelist’s offering plate), then God must heal you.

Picture this god like a slot machine. The gambling addict is seated before it, putting in quarter after quarter while chanting, “I won. I won. I won.” No jackpot, but if he only believes what he is saying, it will have to happen in the material world, and the jackpot will have to come pouring out.

If the Prosperity Gospel is correct, all Christians have a right to be healed, and have the power to force God’s hand to heal them. But, in the Bible, Epaphroditus, Trophimus, Timothy and the Apostle Paul were all sick. Paul was chronically sick. Three times he prayed to the Lord to heal him, but the Lord said “No” (2 Corinthians 12:7).

Was that a lack of faith on the part of Paul and these others? Was it their own fault that they were sick? Were they spiritually inadequate?

Law Four: The Principle of Material Prosperity
Lie Four: You have within you the
power to force the non-material
God to give you material wealth
and money.

This fourth law or principle of the Prosperity Gospel, rising out of the earlier teachings of New Thought, like the third, flows out of the second principle. The late Oral Roberts was, perhaps, the most famous proponent of this fourth principle. He coined the phrase “seed-faith giving.” We are back to god, the one-armed bandit.

Oral Roberts

“Seed-faith giving” claims that if you give money or belongings “to God” (meaning to their ministries), then God is obligated to give you more money in return, thus blessing you with financial prosperity. Thus the name, “Prosperity Gospel.” It is a double-your-money-back guarantee—at least double. A ten-fold or even a one-hundred fold return is sometimes promised.

Mike Murdock

Other popular and successful proponents of this principle are Robert Tilton, Creflo Dollar, Paul and Jan Crouch, Rod Parsley, Mike Murdock and again Kenneth Copland (and wife, Gloria). There are many more. The Pentecostal Prosperity Gospel dominates cable broadcasting, so much so that this brand of “Christianity” might be presumed by the uninformed viewer to be representative of all Christian believers.

Robert Tilton

This fourth and final principle is more than a religious, legal trap. It is more than just another self-salvation program. It is a successful money-making scheme.

Prosperity Gospel proponents promise people that they have the key to ending their financial woes. If the victims of Prosperity Gospel preachers will just let go of the money in their pockets, they are assured God will automatically have to let go of the prosperity that is in God’s pocket for them. It is a principle of reciprocity that God is obligated to obey.

On the other hand, however, it is also your fault if you are in a financial crisis—not because you made mistakes, but because you failed to implement the “faith-force.” Or your sins have messed things up.

Let us say that you sent your last $100 to the televangelist, and that you did not get the $1,000 back from God that he guaranteed. Well, that is your fault. You sinned or lacked faith or were in some way spiritually deficient. It would have worked, they say, if there were not something seriously wrong with you. So get back on the hamster wheel, try harder, pray longer, get all the sin out of your life, and send more money next time.

The Prosperity Gospel proclaims that the poor are not blessed. Far from it. It proclaims, “When you are not blessed, your misfortune is your fault and you deserve it.” The poor, according to the Prosperity Gospel, are self-cursed and God-abandoned. What a coldhearted message to the poor, the sick, and the otherwise unfortunate ones whom Jesus loved and embraced and blessed—“Blessed are you who are poor, for yours is the kingdom of God.” (Luke 6:20)

In the Bible, we find Jesus warning about wealth and greed, we find Jesus showing concern for and solidarity with the poor and blessing them, and we find Paul hungry for lack of funds.

Prosperity Preachers—or Gurus of Greed?

This Prosperity Gospel, with its four principles, has its parallels in Dianetics / Scientology made popular today by celebrities like Tom Cruise and John Travolta, in books like The Secret / Law of Attraction made popular by author Rhonda Byrne, and in other modern prosperity gimmicks like The Law of Success by Napoleon Hill, now available by infomercial for the low price of only $49.95.

These “secular” gimmicks promote the underlying belief that you have the power in your mind, in your mouth, or in your hand to get individual health, wealth and happiness—a belief in common with the Prosperity Gospel. You can manipulate a universal principle if you learn the trick. And the proponents of this secret will sell you the trick for a low, low, introductory price.

This is oppressive religion. Underlying the Prosperity Gospel and New Thought is the very same selfish, occultist legalism—the same impersonal, individualistic hamster-wheel; the same futile, self-salvation religion.

A Summary Contrast of the Biblical Gospel and the Prosperity Gospel

The four laws of the Prosperity Gospel utterly contradict the biblical gospel.

1. God is not a faceless, impersonal force locked away from the material world. In Jesus Christ we see the face of God, flesh and bone and blood, entering and embracing this material world personally, passionately, intimately, for the sake of a relationship of love with us.

2. Scriptural faith is not a force whereby we can command a non-material God to do our bidding in the material world. It is simple rest and trust in the good news that Jesus Christ has finished salvation for the world.

3. You cannot force a non-material God to heal you by claiming yourself already healed. This is superstitious, magical thinking. It is oppressive, futile religion. Jesus Christ, God in the flesh, a healer by all accounts in the Bible, suffered pain. God in the flesh experienced suffering in the material world. Likewise, his earliest followers suffered, some were sick, and some were even killed. What entitles Christ-followers an exemption today?

4. You can’t force a non-material God to make you rich in the material world by claiming that you possess riches. Again, this is magical thinking. It is radical individualism and materialism. And it is futile religion. Jesus had few possessions and little money, he warned about wealth and greed, and he loved and blessed the poor.

Prosperity Gospel Versus the Cross

While the Prosperity Gospel promises escape from suffering, God in Christ and his cross moves into suffering. There is no escapism in the cross. God does not run from pain. In the cross, God enters raw pain, and he does so naked and vulnerable.

While the Prosperity Gospel promise is concerned exclusively with selfish, individual gain through magical thinking, God in Christ and his cross is concerned exclusively with radically humble self-giving and suffering for the sake of others.

In the same way that the Prosperity Gospel does not deal with sin or suffering, neither does it deal with death. You have to stop sinning, it says, using magical thinking to make you healthy and wealthy. You can end your suffering magically, it says, by thinking it away, too. But how do you think away death?

In contrast to the Prosperity Gospel, in the biblical gospel, specifically in the cross of Jesus Christ, God enters even death. He does not run away from death. He does not use magical thinking to avoid death. God the Son willingly lays down his life.

A Clear Choice?

Could the “God” of the Prosperity Gospel and the God of the biblical gospel be more different? One is an impersonal principle, a faceless force, a cosmic law to be manipulated for individual profit. The other is a divine Person with a face—a dear friend, a willing servant, determined to face horrific suffering though scarred beyond recognition, determined to face death though he himself is life— all for the love of us.

Will you be manipulated by the cold, hands-off, run-from-pain, get-rich-quick “god” of the Prosperity Gospel? Or will you believe in and accept the warm, hands-on, walk-with-you-through-everything-and-run-from-nothing God of the biblical gospel?

To me, the choice is clear. But, tragically, my “Christian” cable television station schedule today tells me otherwise.

For more evangelical bad behavior:
Hell House
Katrina - The Wrath of God?
The Christian Ambush: A True Story
Don't You Hate Christian Tracts?

To see the layout of this article just published in Plain Truth Magazine go here: The Prosperity Gospel: God In a Box by Bert Gary.

Read more:

Friday, June 4, 2010

Katrina - The Wrath of God?

A Five-year Eyewitness Retrospective by Bert Gary

The fire chief stopped me in the parking lot of Marvin United Methodist Church in Florence, Mississippi. I was walking from my office to the sanctuary for morning worship. It was Sunday, August 28, 2005, the day before Hurricane Katrina made landfall near the Louisiana / Mississippi State line. The chief walked up to me, shook my hand, and made a simple request. He asked me to prepare my congregation for “a Camille-like event.”

I was not a resident of Mississippi in 1969 for Hurricane Camille, but locals talked of 100-mph winds. Trees down. No power. No water. And fatalities. What could equal Camille? The suggestion was unthinkable.

I gave the chief a hard stare. “Camille-like,” I said.

“Yes, sir,” he said, his voice flat, his eyes already tired. I was looking at a man who knew he was not going to sleep much for a few weeks. I was not sure I believed him, but I agreed to make the announcement.

“What else should I tell them?” I asked him.

I listened to Hurricane Katrina Preparations 101. Anything outside that could become a projectile should be brought inside. Lots of water and non-perishable food items. Lots of batteries for radios and flashlights. Once she hits, stay home. Do not drive. Prepare for weeks without water and electricity.

Projectiles? Weeks?

“Do we need to get the gym ready?” I asked. I knew the church gym had been used as a shelter during previous hurricane evacuations. I knew that the church could organize quickly to make that happen, if needed.

“No,” he said. “Send anyone who stops here up to Richland High School. Don’t let anybody stay here. Your gym roof is not designed to handle 90 mile-per-hour sustained winds.” How he knew that, I do not know. But the prospect of 90 mile-per-hour sustained winds peeling the roof off of the gym left me dumbfounded. That it might happen tomorrow, within twenty-four hours, was inconceivable.

The sun was already radiating off the asphalt as I thanked the chief and shook his hand again. He drove away, and I entered the sanctuary to make the announcement. When I shared with them that the fire chief had just come by the church to ask me to tell them to expect “a Camille-like event,” they gasped and fell silent. My blood ran cold. I did not experience Camille firsthand, but these people did. They knew what those words meant. That is when I realized that something terrifying was out there, and that she might be coming for us, for real.

After worship, while my son and I secured our lawn chairs and such in the garage, my wife and my daughters moved everything in the refrigerator to the deep freezer. Then we filled gallon milk jugs with water and packed the deep freezer to the top. We had already stocked up on batteries and candles. The propane tanks were ready for cooking. We did everything we knew to do. All that was left was to hurry up and wait.

Katrina Arrives

We awoke to wind and rain. It could have been any summer rainstorm, I told myself. I went on the front porch and thought about the coast and New Orleans. Katrina had just made landfall, the TV said. People are fighting for their lives, I thought. God, please help them.

The winds picked up throughout the morning. Looking back, things went in slow motion, but happened so fast. The sky opened and the yard became a lake. A vicious gust scooted a long black snake like a surfer across our flooded front lawn. Limbs cracked and thudded with such frequency that it reminded me of fireworks. More than anything, I was awed by the sustained hiss of the leaves in the trees combined with the sustained howl of the wind. Hours. That is what stunned me. Hours of howl and hiss unrelenting. Add explosions of thunder. And inside the house, add the low drone from the sound of the horizontal deluge driving against the roof. Hour after hour, it made you yearn for just a few seconds of sweet silence.

When the power failed, we huddled in the darkened den, candles were lit in windowless bathrooms, lightning strobed, and we almost yelled at times to hear one another over the roar against the roof and windows.

Then we napped. I am not kidding. I do not understand it even now. We could not keep our eyes open. It must have been Katrina’s low barometric pressure. We all drifted off, like Jesus asleep in the stern of a sinking boat. Then Katrina woke us up.

The large hardwood trees on the far side of the front lawn moved in ways I have never seen trees move. I stepped out onto the front porch with my family at the height of the storm. Because our front porch faced south, and because Katrina’s wrap-around winds were out of the north, the house blocked the storm enough that we could venture out to meet a killer face to face. That moment, for me, is frozen in time. Those treetops resembled blades of grass beneath a weed eater, the way they whipped, trembled and lay down and shattered. Pines snapped at the taproot and fell across the driveway. White siding ripped off the side of the church across the street and flew away. We went back inside.

By the time the sun set, the wind had eased but the rain still poured. We were able to open windows and get some air circulating. We lay awake pondering the fate of people we could not reach by phone, and praying for anyone south and east of us. Hattiesburg. Laurel. Meridian. And God help the people on the coast. The darkness was complete even with my eyes open. We tossed and dozed and wondered.

A New Day Dawns

Sunrise greeted us with new sounds, the combination of which I had never heard before. Chainsaws, sirens, helicopters and planes. I did not know it yet, but those four sounds would be constant for nearly a week. It may not be so in most areas of Los Angeles, but in Florence, Mississippi, guys have chainsaws. And we needed every one of them. There was not a single second during days following Katrina when you could walk outside and not hear chainsaws, sirens, helicopters and planes. It reminded me, though by stark contrast, of the week following the events of September 11, 2001, when the skies were eerily empty and silent.

The gym roof survived, but no street in our town was passable the day after Katrina. Yes, 150 miles from the coast, lucky because we were on the “weak” western side of the storm, and still there was not a passable street in Florence. Trees, utility poles and downed power lines blocked every road. No power. No water. No way out. And thankfully, we found out later, no fatalities in our community.

Our one-acre yard was a jungle of fallen trees and limbs. None hit our house because none were near the house. Many in town were not so lucky. They rode out Katrina with trees in their kitchens. A pastor I know and his family of six rode out the storm sharing their living and sleeping quarters with four huge pines. No one was hurt.

There is no TV without electrical power, of course, so for the first few days, we had to imagine the devastation in places like Waveland and Pass Christian, communities essentially wiped from the map by a thirty-foot storm surge and 130 mile-per-hour winds. We tried to see New Orleans, the Big Easy, under water in our mind’s eyes as the radio DJs described the failing levees, the rising water and the floating bodies. It was as if we were suddenly in a third-world country, cut off, and clinging to civilization via transistors and Duracells.

We were fortunate. Our house, being downtown, got water and power back in four days. It seemed a long time. But friends did not have water and power for over two sweaty, stressful weeks. My best friend was one of those. He and his wife rode out the storm and its long aftermath with a newborn. You did what you had to do.

Though we had power, the cable TV was not back up. Five days after the storm, though people around the world knew what the coast and New Orleans looked like, we did not. We wanted to see for ourselves. So, when my wife and I had to run a truckload of supplies up to the Army airfield in Jackson, we took the opportunity to go to Ruby Tuesday’s restaurant in Ridgeland for lunch. There was a TV behind the bar, and we walked up and stood transfixed with others. We held one another and wept. “No,” we both said again and again. No mental image prepared us for the reality of Katrina’s devastation. Our beautiful coast was eradicated and our beloved New Orleans had drowned.

Why Did It Happen?

A few weeks after Katrina, my first book came out. I went to the Florence, Mississippi, Post Office to mail a copy to a friend. I got a mailer and waited in line. A man came in behind me and took notice of the title of my book, Jesus Unplugged. He commented to me about it and introduced himself as a pastor. He was a 140-pound, elderly African American.

“The Lord sent Katrina to New Orleans as a punishment,” he said, “for the sins going on in that sinful place.”

“I don’t believe that,” I said, aware that people were starting to listen.

“No doubt about it,” he said, not seeming to realize that I had just disagreed with him. “The Lord got those sinners.” I turned to face him.

“You don’t really believe Jesus sent Katrina to punish New Orleans, do you?” I asked.

“Yes, sir, I do! Don’t you?”

Now every ear in the Post Office line was keyed in on two pastors who were getting into an argument about God. Please know that I did not wake up that morning and plan to have a public theological debate in a post office, but this man was speaking so that all could hear, and I guess I was just tired of hearing it. There were TV preachers saying essentially the same thing. I was hearing it on the street. I was mad. But still, I managed to smile as I turned and looked him in the eye.

“If God wanted to kill the sinners in New Orleans, why didn’t Bourbon Street flood? Why did he spare the worst street in the city?”

Because he had no reply, some in the line laughed nervously. I felt bad. I did not want a public theological debate, and I did not mean to embarrass the man or myself, though I may have succeeded in accomplishing both. But it bothers me when people say things like that. That theology (bad things happen to people because of the bad things they did) is not Christian. It is Buddhist (and Hindu and other Indian religions). My fellow pastor in the post office was describing how karma works, not the kingdom of God.

What Did Jesus Say?

I was thinking about the man who interrupted Jesus while he was teaching to report an atrocity: Pilate’s men had killed Galileans in worship (Luke 13). Jesus turned to the crowd and asked, essentially, Do you think the Galileans deserved this because they were worse sinners than other Galileans? (Galileans had a reputation as brigands in the day.) Do you think this was God’s punishment? Then Jesus answered his own question with an unambiguous, “No!”

Immediately Jesus brought up another example—the eighteen Judean workers who were crushed by a falling tower near the Pool of Siloam in Jerusalem. Did they deserve it?, he asked the crowd. Was this God’s punishment? (First century historian Josephus refers to an aqueduct being constructed by money forcibly taken from the temple treasury. Workers there may have been hated for taking pay that was “stolen from God.” Their deaths could have been interpreted by some as God’s retributive justice.) Again, Jesus shouts, “No!”

Jesus concludes both of these “No’s” with a call for everyone in the crowd to repent. The word repent, metanoeo, means “change-mind.” Change your mind about what? Change your mind that God works like that! Jesus rejected karma. “No!” he said. Twice. Do not think like that about my heavenly Father. And do not judge people who experience misfortune. That is what I hear him saying. Then he warned everyone in the crowd. If you keep thinking like that, then it applies to you, too. You will have to consider your misfortune as God’s retribution. You will have to condemn yourself.

Putting aside some unsightly “Christian” interpretations of Katrina as God’s punishment for sin, I want to affirm the compassion and generosity of Christians following the storm. For that matter, the whole world chipped in on the recovery. Our disaster was that huge. It is encouraging to know that in the face of tragedy, people really do come together and try to help. A lot of people worked very hard, not just in the days following the storm, but month after month, year after year, really, to help the coast recover. The recovery goes on even now, five years later.

I hesitate to mention one final thing, because I do not want to sound trite. But I noticed something in Mississippi during the last five years that, to me, is a testimony to Katrina’s enduring power. I noticed something peculiar in Mississippians’ conversations about that epic storm, now five years past. As I listened to Mississippians talk and remember together, sometimes when someone decided to make the inevitable comparisons between Katrina and the horrible, deadly 1969 hurricane, Camille, guess what? As one man attempted to make the comparison, he suddenly found that he could not bring the name “Camille” to mind.

“I never thought I’d see anything worse than… Oh, what was the name of that awful 1969 storm?” he asked.

“Camille,” someone reminded him.

I noticed this happening a lot. Imagine it! Imagine how bad a storm would have to be, in the minds of fifty-plus-year-old Mississippians, for it to have eclipsed the name, if not the memory, of Hurricane Camille.

Though I was an eleven-year-old boy some 500 miles away in Georgia when Camille hit Mississippi in 1969, just five years ago I personally witnessed a measure of Hurricane Katrina’s power. But in these last five years, I also personally witnessed Katrina’s continuing power—the power to do the impossible for anyone who survived the viciousness of “that awful 1969 storm.” Katrina was making Mississippians forget the name “Camille.”

NOTE: August 29, 2010 is the fifth anniversary of Hurricane Katrina’s landfall on the U.S. Gulf Coast. Nearly 2,000 people lost their lives. Nearly 100 were listed as John or Jane Doe. Katrina was the fifth deadliest Atlantic storm. At her peak, she was the sixth most powerful Atlantic hurricane. And Katrina was the most costly natural disaster in U.S. history.

For more evangelical bad behavior:
Hell House
The Prosperity Gospel: God In a Box
The Christian Ambush: A True Story
Don't You Hate Christian Tracts?

To see the fantastic PTM layout of this article CLICK HERE.