Monday, April 6, 2015

AT-A-GLANCE: Chart Comparing the Empty Tomb and Resurrection Appearance in the Four Gospels




MATTHEW
MARK
LUKE
JOHN
WHO WENT TO THE TOMB?
Mary Magdalene and the other Mary (2 women)
Mary Magdalene, Mary the mother of James, and Salome (3 women)
Mary Magdalene, Mary the mother of James, Joanna, and the other women (5 or more women)
Mary Magdalene (1 woman)
WHY DID THEY GO?
To see the sepulcher
To anoint him with spices
To take spices they had prepared
(John's Gospel does not say why.)
WHEN DID THEY GO?
After the Sabbath, toward the dawn, on the first day of the week
After the Sabbath, very early, on the first day of the week, when the sun had risen
At early dawn, on the first day of the week
While it was still dark, on the first day of the week
THE ROLLING STONE
The women witnessed an angel and an earthquake rolling the stone back.
The women worry how they’ll ever move it, but they find the stone already rolled back.
The women find the stone rolled away.
Mary Magdalene finds the stone rolled away.
THE GREETER(S) AT THE TOMB
An angel descended, he looked like lightning, dressed white as snow, and he sat upon the stone outside the tomb (only in Matthew are there guards posted; they tremble and become like dead men).
A young man in a white robe was sitting in the tomb on the right side.
Two men appeared in the tomb in dazzling apparel.
After Peter and the other disciple (John?) left, while Mary was weeping, she stooped to look in and saw two angels in white, sitting where the body had been laid, one at the head and one at the feet.
WHAT THE GREETERS SAID
“Don’t be afraid . . .”
“Don’t be amazed . . .”
“Why do you seek the living among the dead?”
“Woman, why are you weeping?”
THE REACTION OF THE WOMEN TO THE GREETER'S MESSAGE
The women departed quickly from the tomb with fear and great joy, and they ran to tell the disciples.
The women fled from the tomb trembling, astonished, afraid, and said nothing to anyone.
The women returned and told the disciples.
Mary Magdalene saw the stone taken away, she went back and fetched Peter and the other disciple (John?) who came, saw, and left her weeping at the tomb; she answered two angels concerning her weeping, “Because they have taken my Lord away. . .”
JESUS’ FIRST APPEARANCE
Somewhere between the tomb and the disciples’ hideout in Jerusalem, Jesus met the two women and said, “Hail!” and they worshiped him.
Jesus doesn’t appear to anyone, as our oldest and best copies of Mark end at 16:8; 9-20 was almost certainly written later by someone else.
Somewhere on the road to Emmaus, Jesus walked with two disciples, one named Cleopas. And at an unnamed place Jesus is said to have appeared to Simon (Peter). These two appearances happen about the same time, and it's unclear which was first.
Just outside the tomb, Jesus appeared to Mary Magdalene who mistakes him for the gardener.
OTHER APPEARANCES
To the eleven on a Galilean mountain
(In the longer ending of Mark written by someone else, Jesus appeared to two disciples walking in the country and to the eleven while at table.)
To the eleven plus companions in Jerusalem behind closed doors
Somewhere behind closed doors without Thomas; same room one week later with Thomas; later to seven disciples on the shore of the Sea of Galilee

RESURRECTION APPEARANCES IN THE BIBLE BEYOND THE FOUR GOSPELS

Book of Acts - the risen Christ appeared:
1-Acts 1:3-5 --- to disciples, teaching during forty days (Passover-Pentecost)
2-Acts 1:6-11 --- to disciples who witness his ascension
3-Acts 7:55-56 --- to Stephen in a “vision” of heaven as he is about to be stoned
4-Acts 9:1-9 --- to Saul/Paul on the road to Damascus—not an appearance like others

First Corinthians 15:3-11 - the tradition handed to Paul says the risen Christ appeared:
1 - to Cephas (Peter)
2 - then to the twelve (at first eleven)
3 - then to more than five hundred believers at one time
4 - then to James (Jesus' brother and eventual leader of the church in Jerusalem)
5 - then to all apostles
6 - then to Saul/Paul last

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